如何打造一栋绝缘的「土袋房」之土袋填充土的正确配比

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SOILTESTS FOR EARTHBAG

土袋房土壤试验


CONTENTS内容

PART1: CAN I USEMY SOIL?

第一部分:我可以使用我的土壤吗?

1Collecting Soil 收集泥土

2TEST BAG测试袋

3CluesAbout Soil 关于土壤的信息

4SQUEEZE TEST 挤压试验

5DROP TEST落锤试验

6Sand沙子 4 Weak Soil 软土

7Silty Soil 粉质土壤

8SHAKE TEST 震动试验

9RichClay Soil 肥沃的粘土

10TropicalClays 热带粘土

11ExpansiveClays 膨胀性粘土

12RIBBONTEST色带测试

13CRUSHTEST压碎试验

14SWELLTEST膨胀测试

15SHRINK TEST收缩试验

PART2: HOW DO I BUILD WITHTHIS SOIL?

第二部分:如何在这种土壤上建造房屋?

16Planyour Building Wisely

明智地规划你的建筑

17Plasters石膏

18Plaster Needed for Different BagFills

不同袋子所需填充的石膏

19Building with Weak Soil

软土建筑

20Improving Weak Soil

改良软土

21Building with Rich Clay Soil

富含粘土的建筑

22Building on Swelling ClaySoils

在膨胀的粘土上建造房屋

23Using Swelling Clay Soils to Build

利用膨胀粘土进行建筑

24Improving Rich Clay Soil

改良肥沃粘土

25Stabilizing Soil

稳定土壤



PART1: CAN I USE MYSOIL?

第一部分:我可以使用我的土壤吗?


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Good soil can make strongbuildings. Earth with a little clay in it will hold together. Most soils do notneed any cement, asphalt, or lime added to harden them. More kinds of soil canbe strong in earthbags than in adobe, orrammed earth. Soil used for roads (called road base) contains just enough clay,can be bought in many places, and usually works well.

良好的土壤可以建造坚固的建筑物。有粘性的泥土会结合在一起。大多数土壤不需要添加水泥、沥青或石灰来使其硬化。大多数土壤在土袋房中可以发挥出比在土砖、夯土中更充分的作用。用来修道的土壤(称为路基)都含有足够的粘土,粘土在许多地方都可以买到,而且通常效果很好。

Your land may containdifferent soils. Dig a few small holes in different areas to find out withoutremoving many plants. Are there different layers? Soil scientists often use along-handled soil augur. This tool helps you to quickly check the soil severalfeet deep without making a big hole.

你的土地可能包含不同的土壤。在不同的地方挖几个小洞,不用移走很多植物就能找到答案。这块土地中的土壤有不同的层次吗?土壤学家经常使用长柄探土工具,无需挖洞也能够帮助他们快速检查土壤几英尺深。

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Right: Several very differentsoils and an augur

右图:几种不同的土壤和一个探土工具



COLLECTINGSOIL收集土壤



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Don’t use the top layer ofdarker soil. The topsoil smells a little moldy and contains rotting leaves androots. It is good for growing but bad for building because it can rot andcompress. Save it out of the way.

不要使用表层的深色土壤。表层土闻起来有点发霉,还有腐烂的树叶和树根。它有利于生长,但不利于建设,它可以腐烂和压缩,因此可以把它保存起来。


You need to see if therewill be enough of the same kind of soil to build your building. To build a 3 x3.6 m (10 x 12’) room with 2.4 m (8’) high walls will take 44 cubic meters (52cubic yards) of soil. If you take this from a hillside next to your house, the hole will need to beabout 6 x 10m x 1.5m deep at the back. On sloping land some people set the buildingfloor level low enough to use some soil from under the building. On flat land some dig a new cistern to get soil.

你需要看看是否有足够的相同类型的土壤来构建你的建筑。建造一个 3×3.6 米 (10×12英尺)的房间,墙高 2.4 米(8英尺),需要 44 立方米(52 立方码)的土壤。如果你从你房子旁边的山坡上取土,那么你所需挖的洞需要大约6x10mx1.5m 的深度。在倾斜的地面上,一些人把建筑物底层设置得很低,以便使用建筑物下面的土壤。在平坦的土地上,有些人也选择挖一个新的蓄水池来获得土壤。

Collect enough soil to fill one or two bagsand a few extra handfuls for other tests.

收集足够的土壤来装一两袋,还有一些额外的泥土来做其他的测试。


An average sample mixed from two or threeholes is best.

从两个或三个孔中所取的混合型平均样本是最好的。


TEST BAG测试袋


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The best soil test is to make abag, tamp it, and leave it to cure in the shade and out of the rain for 10- 14days.

最好的土壤测试方法是做一个袋子,把它压实,然后放在阴凉处10-14 天,在此过程中需要注意避雨。

Get a couple leftover woven grainbags. Fill each at least half full. Roll, sew, staple, or pin the top. Lay themflat. Pound each 5- 10 times with a tamper or thick piece of wood.

找几个剩余的编织谷物袋,每个至少装满一半土壤。任选一种方式:卷起来、缝起来、用订书钉或别用针将其顶部密封住,然后把它们放平。用捣固器或厚木头敲打,每个5-10次。


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Then pick each bag up and drop itfrom 45 cm (18”) above the ground. Most good soils will not crumble all loose.

然后拿起每个袋子,从离地面 45 厘米(18”)的高度扔下。大多数好的土壤都不会全部溃散。

Tamp them again, and let them dryin the shade. (This could take 2 weeks in hot weather or less near the stove).

再把它们捣碎,让它们在阴凉处晾干。(在炎热的天气里,这可能需要两个星期或更少的时间在火炉附近)。

After they are hardened, open themup to check. A good soil won’t break easily.No chunks will break offif you hammer a nail in. It will be hard to dent.

硬化后,打开检查:好的土壤不容易破碎,如果你把钉子钉进去,不会有大块的断裂,这样的土是很难击碎的。

If there are any cracks, theyshould not be deep enough to cause pieces to break off.

如果土壤存在裂缝,也不应该深到足以导致自身断裂。


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CLUES ABOUT SOIL

关于土壤的信息

While you’re waiting for your bagsto cure, try to find out more about your soils. Are buildings or roads settlingor cracking on this kind of soil? If the same soil holds up a two-story cementblock building, it can hold up the weight of a one-story earth building.

当你在等待袋子测试的时候,试着找出更多关于你需要的土壤的信息。使用这种土壤的建筑物或道路是否存在沉降或开裂的现象?如果同样的土壤能够支撑一栋两层的水泥砌块建筑,那么它就能够支撑一栋一层的土楼。

A few soils have odd problems. Somedry area soils are white from salts or other chemicals. Some dark soils thatused to be salt water swamps turn very acid (and toxic) some weeks after theyare dug up. Some warm-climate soils harden permanently into rock. Some claysoils slowly slide downhill, leaving fences and trees that lean. Others thatcrack in the dry season can swell and breakbuilding footings. Any of these might be a problem for earthbags.

一些有关土壤的问题:一些干旱地区的土壤由于盐或其他化学物质而呈白色;一些曾经是咸水沼泽的黑色土壤在挖掘几个星期后会变得非常酸(和有毒);有些气候温暖地带的土壤会永久硬化成岩石;一些粘土会慢慢地滑下山坡,留下篱笆和倾斜的树木;还有会在旱季开裂的土壤,以其为材料的建筑物底座可能会膨胀或断裂。所有这些都可能成为土袋房土壤的问题。


If there were any earth buildingsin your area find out about the soils used. Elders may remember how others usedto work with your soil, even if no one builds with it now. Thisknowledge is precious.

如果在你的地区有任何土制建筑物,找出它们所使用的土壤。工龄较大的长辈可能还记得别人是如何在你的土地上工作的,即使现在没有人在这里建造房屋,这种知识也是宝贵的。


SQUEEZETEST

挤压试验

Use the subsoil that isunderneath. Pick out any sticks or leaves and stones. Take a small handful ofsoil. Add a few drops of water (if needed) so it will hold a shape when yousqueeze it in your hand.

使用底土,挑出任何树枝、树叶和石头,取一小把土壤,加几滴水(如果需要的话),这样当你把它握在手里的时候,它就会保持一个形状。


A SOFT LUMP

一个柔软的肿块

STILL FALLS APART WITH ADDED WATER

随着水的增加,仍然分崩离析

A VERY FIRM LUMP

一个非常坚硬的硬块

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Probably a good soil

可能是块好土地

Needs added clay or extra reinforcing to需要添加粘土或额外的加固 hold the building together把这栋大楼撑起来A lot of clay 很多粘土


DROPTEST 落锤试验

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This will tell you if the soilhas enough clay for earthbag. Later as you fill bags, use the same test to besure there’s enough moisture in your soil.

这篇将告诉你土壤是否有足够的粘性来构建土袋房,后面当你装袋时,可以使用相同的测试,以确保有足够的水分在您的土壤。

Makeballs 4 cm (or about 1 ½ inches) in diameter. Use soil just moist enough tohold together. Drop the balls one at a time from a 1.5 m height (about 5’) ontosomething hard. Most of the balls should act the same way.用土壤制作一个球 :4 厘米(或约 1 英寸)的直径,使其足够潮湿来固定。从 1.5 米高的地方(大约 5英尺)一次扔一个球到地面上。大多数的球都应该是这个样子的:


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WEAK S OIL- This soilwas squeezed hard软土——这种土壤被挤压得很硬but broke into many little pieces whendropped.但掉下来的时候碎成了许多小块。Read about weak and silty soils pages 4 and10.阅读关于软土和粉土的第 4 和第 10 页。

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SOIL WITH SOME CLAY

含有粘土的土壤

This ball split into a few pieces whendropped.

这个球掉下来时裂成了几块。

Soils like this usually containjust enough clay and are good for earthbags. Have a look at pages 9 and 10, andbuild carefully!

这样的土壤通常含有足够的粘土,适合做土袋房。看看第 9 页和第 10 页,仔细构建!

But if you are building inthe tropics, hold on. Tropical soils like this can contain a lot of clay. Cut aball with a table knife. If the soil looks shiny and smooth, do a swellingtest. See page 8.

但是如果你是在热带地区建造房屋的话,需要考虑一下。热带土地中含有大量的粘土,你可以用刀将土球切开,如果土壤看起来有光泽平滑,那么需要做膨胀试验。见第 8 页。

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RICH CLAY SOIL

肥沃的粘土

Thisball flattened with only a few cracks.

这个球只有几条裂缝变平了。

This soil has a lot of CLAY, probably 15% or more. See pages 5- 8 and 11- 13.

这种土壤含有大量的粘土,大约 15%或更多。参见第5-8 页和 11-13 页。

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Shiny balls or ones that leave abig wet mark are too wet.

闪亮的球或者那些留下一个大大的湿印子的球太湿了。

Add dry soil and retest them untilthey stop leaving the wet mark.

加入干土,重新测试,直到它们不再留下湿痕为止。

SAND 沙子


Sandbags are not the same as earthbags. They are too likely to slump. Earthbagsneed to tamp to a solid mass to be strong.

沙袋和土袋是不一样的,不加土的沙袋房很有可能突然坍塌。土袋房也需要夯实土壤才能变得坚固。

A few unusual sands will set upfirm in bags. These were formed from coral or granite and harden by a chemicalprocess. If you have sand, tamp it in a test bag and let it cure for severaldays to see if it is an unusual sand that will harden.

一些沙子会在袋子里结块,通常都是由珊瑚或花岗岩形成,并通过化学过程硬化。如果你的土中有沙子,把它捣进一个试验袋,让它固化几天,看看它是否是会硬化的沙子。

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Above: This sand in the Bahamas from dredged coral set up hard in bags

上图:巴哈马群岛的挖出的珊瑚用沙袋固定

Sand mixed with shells or shellfragments may be less likely to slump than pure sand. But any low-strength soilmust have bracing during construction a structural skin. Rea d about buildingwith weak soils on page 10.

与贝壳或贝壳碎片混合的砂子比纯砂坍落的可能性小。但是,任何低强度的土壤必须在施工期间有一个支撑。第10页关于软弱土建筑的实例。

Sandy soils also sometimes containsalts. The salt s in the bag can work their way out through the plaster to makewhite patches or weaken cement stucco. If you aren’t buying washed sand, washit well.

沙质土壤有时也含有盐分。袋子里的盐会通过石膏渗出来形成白色斑块,也可能腐蚀水泥。如果你不买洗过的沙子,那就把袋子里的沙洗干净。


WEAKSOIL

软土

Some soils that form a ball whensqueezed still shatter when dropped. They can feel gritty because they hav e alot of sand, or feel smooth because they are mostly silt. Either should haveclay added so that an earthbag will hol d together. This will greatly reducethe cost of reinforcement needed. Read about building with weak soils on page10.

有些被挤压成球状的土壤,当掉落时仍然会变得粉碎。在它们可以感觉到有砂砾,因为它们有很多沙子,或者虽然感觉很光滑,因为它们大部分是泥沙。这样的土壤都应该混合粘土,这样土袋房才可以堆在一起。这将大大降低所需的加固费用。阅读第10 页关于弱土建筑的内容。


SILTY SOIL

粉质土壤

Silt by itself is very weak becausethe particles are rounded and do not interlock well. Silt is not very stro ngto hold up buildings or to make them, and it also doesn’tdra in well to treat wastewater. Soils with a mix of different particle sizesare strongest. A very silty soil has to have both clay a nd sand or graveladded.

淤泥本身是非常弱的,因为这些颗粒是单独成圆的,不能很好地连接起来。淤泥不能很好地支撑建筑物,也不能构建建筑,而且它也不能很好地处理废水。不同粒径混合的土壤是最强的,过度淤泥质的土壤必须同时添加粘土和沙子或砾石。

If you want to be sure whether youare feeling th e grit of some fine sand, a shake test will show you. 如果你想确定你感觉到了一些含有细沙的土壤,摇动试验会告诉你答案。

SHAKE TEST

摇动试验


Break up ahandful of soil and put it in a bottle with st raight sides.

把一把泥土弄碎,然后把它放在瓶子里。

SOIL Add enough water to cover it and shake well.

加入足够的水覆盖它并充分摇匀。

If you think your soil hasa lot of clay in it, stir in a little salt. It will help the clay to settle inhours to a day instead of 1- 3 days.

如果你认为你的土壤里有很多粘土,那就加一点盐。这将有助于粘土在一小时至一天之内沉淀,而不是 1-3天。

Let the bottle sit very still forone minute. The sand particles will settle on the bottom. Mark a line on yourbottle or put a rubber band to mark the top of the settled material.

把瓶子静静地放一分钟,沙粒会沉积在底部。在瓶子上画一条线,或者用橡皮筋在沉淀物顶部做记号。

If the wateris so cloudy or brown that you can’t see a nything, leave it for one hour. Thesilt will be settled too, and sand at the bottom will look grainy. Siltparticles are so small they are har d to see.

如果水太浑浊或者颜色是褐色,你什么也看不见的情况下,那就再放一个小时。淤泥也会沉淀下来,底部的沙子会呈颗粒状。淤泥颗粒很小,很难看到。


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VERY SANDY SOIL 非常多沙的土壤

Contains both clay and sand, but also organic matter at the top

同时含有粘土和 沙子,但顶端是有机 物


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CLAY SOIL 粘土

It is hard to tell where the silt ends and the clay begins

很难分辨出淤泥和粘土的界限


If you have a lot of time, leaveit uncovered after the water clears when the clay is settled. As it dries theclay layer will pull away from the bottle, and show where the silt layer ends.

如果你有很多时间,当粘土沉淀下来之后把水清理干净,不要盖上盖子。当它干燥时,粘土层会从瓶子里脱离出来,并显示出淤泥层的界限。

If you want a quicker answer,stir, time it and very gently pour the different layers off. After one minutepour the liquid on top into another bottle the same size. The thicker or grainystuff will mostly be sand. Let it set. An hourlater, gently pour off the liquid from the second bottle until somethingthicker is left. That will be the silt.

如果你想要一个更快的答案,搅拌,计时,要非常小心地倒出不同层次中的沉淀物。一分钟后,把这种液体倒进另一个同样大小的瓶子里。较厚或颗粒状的物质大部分是沙子。让它凝固。一个小时后,轻轻倒出第二个瓶子里的液体,直到剩下更稠的东西。那就是淤泥。

The organic matter (what is intopsoil) doesn’t settle. It will keep floating in the liquid on top. If thereis more than a tiny amount floating on top in your bottle, dig deeper for yoursample and retest.

有机物(表层土壤中的物质)不能沉淀。它会一直漂浮在上面的液体中。如果你的瓶子上面漂浮着的过多,则需要深入挖掘你的样品并重新测试。

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Right: Organic material floating ontop

右图:漂浮在上面的有机物

Many builders use this kind ofshake test to see what proportion of sand, silt and clay is in their soil. Itis hard to measure accurate percentages, because particles often grade toogently from one size to the next. But it does tell you if a soil contains thesedifferent particles.

许多建筑工人使用这种震动试验来看看他们的土壤中有多少比例的沙子,淤泥和粘土。很难测量准确的百分比,因为颗粒从一种尺寸到另一种尺寸的分级往往过于轻微。但它能告诉你土壤中是否含有这些不同的颗粒。

RICHCLAY SOIL

肥沃的粘土

Any clay in a soil will stain yourhand, and can not be brushed off.

土壤中的任何粘土都会把你的手弄脏,而且是刷不掉的。

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Soils that contain too much strongclays cause problems in adobe or rammed earth . Because they are exposed anycracking must be kept to a very small amount or moisture will soak deep intothe units. But earthbags protected by poly bags and plaster can use soils thatcontain more clay.

含有过多强性粘土的土壤会引起土坯或夯土的问题。因为它们是裸露的,任何开裂都必须保持在很小的程度,否则水分会渗透到深处。但是用塑料袋和石膏保护的土袋房可以使用含有更多粘性的土壤。


Different clays are verydifferent. Soil with a lot of clay should be tested more, to be sure it doesnot include too much of a problem kind of clay.

不同的粘土是非常不同的。含有大量粘性的土壤应该进行更多的测试,以确保它不包含太多有问题的粘土。

TROPICAL CLAYS

热带粘土

Clays in the tropics need to bechecked differently than clays in cooler areas. Deep tropical soils that arered or yellow often contain a lot of clay. People used to clays in other areasmay be fooled because tropical clays can be much less sticky and flexible (or‘plastic’) than clays in other places.

热带地区的粘土所需要的检查不同于凉爽地区的粘土所作的检查。红色或黄色的深层热带土壤通常含有大量粘土。过去在其他地方使用粘土的人们可能会被蒙蔽,因为热带粘土比其他地方的粘土要柔韧得多。

Tropical soils are often deeperand more variable than soils found in cooler climates. Be sure you are testingsoil mixed from different parts of your soil dig area.

热带地区的土壤往往比较深,而且比气候凉爽的地区的土壤更易变化。确保你是在测试你的土壤挖掘区域的不同部分混合的土壤。

Many rich clay soils found in thetropics have swelling problems. If a tropical soil cracked a little in the DropTest and looked shiny like clay when you cut it, you should do the swell teston page 8.

在热带地区发现的许多肥沃的粘土都有膨胀的问题。如果一块热带土壤在落锤试验中出现一点裂缝,并且切割时看起来像粘土一样发亮,你应该做第8 页的膨胀试验。

If a tropical soil is very sticky,the ribbon and crush test will tell you how hard it will be to work. It also isa good idea to dry out a little to be sure it doesn’t harden into rock-hardlaterite, if you haven’t seen it dry before.

如果一个热带土壤非常粘,带状和粉碎试验将告诉你用这种土壤这将是多么困难的工作。如果你以前没有见过红土干燥的话,最好把它稍微晾干一点,以确保它不会硬化成岩石般坚硬的红土。

5EXPANSIVE CLAYS

膨胀的粘土


Some clays shrink and swell as they get wet ordry.A really expansive soil can swell 50% to 200% in volume when it is wetted. It takesspecial care to build earthbag walls with a soil that shrinks and swells alittle. Buildings on these soils may also need special foundations.

有些粘土变湿或变干时会缩小和膨胀。一块真正的膨胀土壤在被湿润后,其体积可膨胀50%至 200%。它需要特别注意建立土袋墙时土壤的收缩和膨胀情况。在这些土壤上的建筑物可能也需要特殊的地基。

The ribbon test andcrush test below are quick. They may tell you that your cool climate soil won’tneed a swell test.

下面的带状试验和压碎试验是快速的。他们可能会告诉你,你的凉爽气候土壤不需要膨胀测试。

RIBBON TEST FOR RICH CLAYS

富含粘土的带状试验

Get soil just moist enough to roll. Remove big pieces of grit, and keep it justdamp. Shape it into a ribbon about the size of a finger. If a finger width willhold together upright in a piece as long as a hand, the soil may be strongenough to use for adobe, rammed earth.

让土壤足够湿润以便滚动。除去大块的沙砾,保持潮湿。把它做成一个手指大小的缎带。如果这些土壤能够一块一块地粘连到一起,并且宽度正好如同手指那样的话(而非如图右侧所示般膨胀),那么该土壤的强度足以用来制作土坯、夯土。

To find out just howflexible it is, knead it more to mix it very well and develop its strength. Addenough water to roll it out a little thinner.

为了发现它的柔韧性,可以多揉搓它,使它混合得更好,从而增强它的强度。加入足够的水,把它卷得更薄一点。

Shape it as thin as a pencil- 6mm thick (a little less than 1/4inch).

把它做得像铅笔一样薄—— 6 毫米厚(略小于 1/4 英寸)。


111736ai3en63ejcm4c312.jpg

Cut off 4 cm (1 ½inch) length.

切断 4 厘米(11 英寸)长度。

If it stays together whenyou can hold itup, it is a SLIGHTLY PLASTIC soil.It should not have any swelling problems. Read about building with rich clayon pages 11- 13.

如果把它拿起来的时候它还粘连在一起,那么它就是一种轻微的塑料土壤。它不应该有任何肿胀的问题。请阅读第 11-13 页关于用丰富的粘土建造房屋的内容。


To shape it thinner you may need to roll iton a flat surface or press it into the right shape with a knife.

为了使它的形状更薄,你可能需要将它在一个平面上滚动或者用刀把它压成正确的形状。


If you can hold up a 4mm thick piece(a little more than 1/8 inch) it is a MODERATELYPLASTIC soil. You should also do the crush test.

如果你能拿起一块4毫米厚的土(略多于1/8英寸),(它却不断裂)它就是一种中等塑性的土壤。你还应该做碾压测试。


Ifa very thin, 2 mm thick ribbon holds together (between 1/8 and 1/16 inch) whenit is the same length orlonger, it is a VERY PLASTIC soil. You must do the crushtest below also.

如果一根非常薄的2毫米厚的带子在相同长度或更长的情况下粘在一起(1/8到1/16英寸之间),这就是非常具有可塑性的土壤。你也必须做下面的粉碎测试。

111736hkxh7xg5kmnfxqrt.jpg

This very plastic clay couldbe rolled longer than 4 cm.

这种可塑性非常强的粘土可以被擀长超过4厘米。


CRUSHTEST FOR RICHCLAY

高粘土的压碎试验


To test for strength, finda chunk of dry soil or make a ball of moist soil about 2.5- 3 cm (1 inch) and dry it out. If there are thinplaty crusts in the soil, use a piece 1- 1.5 cm long but 0.5 cm thick heldthe long way.

为了测试土壤强度,找一块干燥的土壤或者做一个大约 2.5-3 厘米(1 英寸)的潮湿土壤球,然后把它弄干。如果土球上有薄的片状表皮,可以 用一块 1-1.5 厘米长但是 0.5 厘米厚的板来固定。

How easily can you crush the smallchunk? Try for a second to crush the soil. The soil’s strength will alsocontrol how difficult it is to dig up

你能轻易地把这一小块碎掉吗?试着用一秒钟来压碎土壤。土壤的强度也决定着挖掘的难度

111736dwhktkltmucae8wq.jpg


It took a light squeeze toshatter it. This soil was not even hard.

轻轻一挤就把它压碎了。这块土称不上硬。


111737lxmnrrph5r7lyznw.jpg


The gray clay that was very plastic (page 7) could not besqueezed but was easy to crush underfoot. ThisNY clay did swell (about 30%) and was used to make thestabilized bag shown on page 13

非常可塑的灰色粘土(第 7 页)不能被挤压,但很容易被踩碎。这种粘土确实会膨胀(约 30%),并且被用于维稳土袋(显示在第 13 页)


111737q9lmy8t0l0t8dslu.jpg

PRESSURE NEEDED需要的压力TEXTURE 质地COMPARISON 比较USES 用途IF如果

Can barely break between thumb andone finger用两个手指不能被捏碎

HARD 坚硬

Hard as very stale bread

硬得跟陈腐的面包一样


Probably strong enough for earthbag

足够的硬度建造土袋房

It is also moderately plastic maybe it will swell: Do theswell test (page 8)它是适度可塑的也许它会膨胀: 做膨胀试验(第 8 页)

Can break between 可以用双手捏碎VERY HARD 非常坚硬

Easy to dig out with a pick很容易挖出一个洞

Medium to heavy clays good for It is also very plastic earthbag, adobe, rammed earth, or

中等到重度土对土包子,土砖,或夯土有好处

It is also very plastic it probably will swell: check how much (page 8) 它也是非常可塑的,它可能会膨胀:看看有多少(第 8页)

Can crush it under foot on floor用脚踩可以把它碾碎


EXTREMELY HARD 极端坚硬


Must swing a pick over the head to dig it必须用农具去挖

Hit gently with atool to crush 轻轻地用工具打一下就会粉碎


Hit hard with a mallet to crush用力地打 锤子砸碎



RIGID 坚硬






VERY RIGID 非常坚硬













Very hard to dig by hand很难用手挖掘




Slow for a 40 hp backhoe to dig 要用速度为40 马力的挖掘机






SWELLTEST

膨胀测试

If your clay is DRY, put it in a bottle or test tube tosee if it swells.

如果你的粘土是干的,把它放在一个瓶子或试管里,看看它是否膨胀。

Any tests for expansionwill take more than a day. Some clays soak up water very slowly. It may takemore than 24 hours for dry clay to really become wet.

任何膨胀测试都需要一天以上的时间。有些粘土吸水很慢,干燥的粘土可能需要24 小时以上才能真正变湿。

Crush it to a fine powder.Put it in a dry bottle with straight sides. Try to add enough soil to bring itto 9 cm high, tapping a little to settle it. Add just enough water to cover andstir with a stick or nail. Let it sit a full day. See if it swells.

把它碾成细粉。把它放在一个直边的干瓶子里。试着添加足够的土壤,使其达到 9 厘米高,轻轻拍打使其沉淀。加入适量的水,用棍子或者钉子搅拌。让它沉淀一整天。看看有没有肿起来。

The percent expansion is approximately final soilheight minus dry heightIf it ends up about 9.5 cm high, you have about a 5% expansion.

百分比的增长大约是最终土壤高度 - 干燥土壤高度。如果它达到了 9.5 厘米高,你就有了大约 5%的膨胀。


Higher than 10.5 cm will be about15% expansion.

高于 10.5 厘米的膨胀率约为 15%。

111738n0jn4nno4krahq60.jpg

Above: These test tubes were filledto the same level with different dry soils.

上图:这些试管用不同的干土填充到同一水平。

A more accurate way to test forswelling is to take 2 amounts of oven-dried soil that weigh the same. Use twobottles or straight glasses the same size. Drop one soil into water with alittle salt, and the other into an equal amount of kerosene or thin cookingoil. Stir them very well and leave them to settle out until the liquid isclear. Then measure the difference in height between the sediments in oil andthe sediments in water.

一个更准确的方法来测试膨胀是采取 2 份烘干的土壤,重量相同。使用两个同样大小的瓶子或直玻璃杯。将一份土壤放入少许盐的水中,另一份放入等量的煤油或稀油中。把它们搅拌均匀,让它们沉淀下来,直到液体变得清澈。然后测量油中沉积物和水中沉积物的高度差。


SHRINK TEST

收缩试验

Some soil scientists say a swelltest is more accurate than a shrink test. But if a shrink test is easier, anytest is better than nothing.

一些土壤科学家说膨胀试验比收缩试验更准确,但如果收缩测试更容易,总好过没有做任何试验。


Spread MOISTsoil out thin on a piece of metal and dry it. A metal hoe might work well. Puta little oil on it first. Try to get the soil to cover it exactly, about 1 cmthick. Then dry the hoe in the sun or near the cooking fires until it is veryhard.

在一块金属上铺上湿润的土壤,然后晾干。金属锄头可能就很合适。先在上面抹点油,尽量让土壤精准地覆盖它,大约1 厘米厚。然后将锄头放在太阳底下或者靠近烹饪火炉的地方晾干,直到锄头变得非常硬。

111738lzwxarstv87s87wj.jpg

Haitian clay on a grub hoe

锄头上的海地粘土


The percentage ofshrinka ge is approximately:Wet area minus dry area dry area.

收缩率大约是:潮湿土壤覆盖区域——干燥土壤覆盖区域 ——干燥土壤覆盖区域

On a grub hoe 11 x 22 cm (4.5 x8.5 inches) you can fit 240 cm3 of clay. If it shrinks back 1 cm from each edge (like the soilabove did) you have 62 ÷ 240 or a 25% expansion.

在一个 11×22厘米(4.5×8.5 英寸)的挖掘机上,你可以装下 240 立方厘米的粘土。如果它从每个边缘收缩回 1 厘米(像上面的土壤做)你有 62240或 25%的膨胀。

If it ends up also a little thinnerthan 1 cm, it’s even more expansive.

如果它比 1 厘米薄一点,它就更具膨胀性。



第二部分请下载电子书阅读


平台对话框回复:土袋房土壤配比

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